The invention relates to a structure of a novel anti-theft spring lock cylinder, and a design principle and a manufacturing method for a key corresponding to the novel anti-theft spring lock cylinder. The novel anti-theft spring lock cylinder consists of a fixed solid lock shaft, a keyhole layer, a rotating ring and a lock body shell. A key system corresponding to the novel anti-theft spring lock cylinder is a result of differently dividing the space of the keyhole layer; and an example key model is obtained by differently dividing a cylindrical barrel body. The spring lock cylinder formed by the novel structure is extremely high in key amount to ensure that the mutual unlocking rate of keys is approximate to zero; the keys corresponding to the spring lock cylinder have extremely abundant models, so that the spring lock cylinder can meet various individuation requirements; and the keys in certain models cannot be duplicated basically, so that the keys cannot be generally fitted to locks. The spring lock cylinder with the structure is matched with the key, and is extremely high in technical opening resistance. The locks have simple structures and short production processes and are extremely suitable to be popularized.